Rosacea is one of the most common skin diseases which may cause redness and swell on the central-facial areas of the face. Rosacea is usually common in women and people with fair skin. It usually starts between ages 30 and 40, but in recent years, it is also being seen in younger men and women. In affected individuals following symptoms may be found:

  • Frequent redness of the face, or flushing
  • Small, tiny red lines under the skin, these are dilated capillaries
  • Red, raised eruptions or pimples
  • A swollen nose
  • Itchy, dry and red eyes
  • In chronic long-standing untreated cases, thick skin, usually on the nose called ‘Rhinophyma’ is seen.

Triggering Factors

Sun exposure is a major triggering factor for rosacea, and other than that sudden temperature changes, hot showers, steam, and sauna can be held responsible for aggravating melasma. Dietary items such as alcohol especially red wine, caffeine, hot and spicy food and hot beverages such as tea and coffee are also can trigger this problem. Sometimes. Menopause, emotional stress and premenstrual hormonal fluctuations too can aggravate Rosacea.


  • The application of sunscreen daily with an SPF of 30+ is essential in the morning and afternoon.
  • Light paraben-free, perfume-free moisturizers should be used to keep the skin calm.
  • Sometimes antibiotics may be necessary; Metronidazole and Clindamycin gels are topical antibiotics that are used for mild cases. In severe cases, oral antibiotics can be used. Eg Doxycycline.
  • Topical mild steroid creams rapidly reduce redness and swelling of the face in very severe cases for a very short period of time of about a week under a Dermatologist’s supervision. Steroid creams should not be used routinely on a long term basis as this can be very harmful to both rosacea as well as the skin and will eventually worsen the condition and the redness.

Maintenance Treatment

As Rosacea is a chronic condition with phases of clearance and flare-ups, so, understanding the triggers and avoiding them meticulously will go a long way to prevent flare-ups. Once the patient has achieved control over rosacea, one must understand that the skin continues to be prone to irritation and therefore patients have to avoid using beauty products and should continue to use their sunscreens and moisturizers regularly. A diary must be maintained to keep a record of when the flare-ups happen.

Treatment of sequelae

The skin bumps or pimples may get better quickly, but redness and flushing take longer to improve. Once a patient has achieved control over Rosacea then a dermatologist may consider light treatments such as IPL to reduce the redness and improve the texture of the skin. If the patient has developed a swollen, thickened and bumpy nose (termed as Rhinophyma) Ablative Radiofrequency or Surgical removal can be considered.